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An inside look at the science of cleaning up and fixing the mess of marine pollution
Updated: 25 min 13 sec ago

Keeping the Oil Pollution Act Updated

Thu, 08/17/2017 - 08:10

The pipeline release allowed an estimated 21,000 gallons of crude oil to reach the Pacific Ocean, shown here where the oil entered Refugio State Beach. (NOAA)

On August 18, 1990, President H.W. Bush signed the Oil Pollution Act.  The act gave NOAA and other agencies improved authorities for spill prevention, response, and restoration in the nation’s navigable waters and shorelines.

The act ensured those responsible for an oil spill must cleanup and restore the environment, and compensate the public for its lost uses—like beach and recreational fishery closures—from the time of the incident until those natural resources fully recover.

Now 27 years old, some parts of the law are dated. But, the Act signed by President Bush was not the final word on oil pollution.

Like many other laws, it has been subject to various amendments over time to address emerging issues or to strengthen or clarify the original law.

Often, the amendments advance through related legislation that move through Congress and reach the president. For example, a number of Oil Pollution Act amendments were added to U.S. Coast Guard authorization bills.

For instance, the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 added a number of provisions including:

  • Requirements for oil transfers from vessels
  • Improvements to reduce human error and near miss incidents
  • Prevention of small oil spills
  • Improved coordination with tribal governments
  • Changed the definitions of certain ports
  • Altered uses of Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund by authorizing appropriations for NOAA and changed liability provisions for single hull vessels.

Sometimes these amendments can be quite technical but can also have significant impacts on how we work.  For example, the Coast Guard authorization act included this language that affected waterways near Seattle:

Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commandant shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to modify the definition of the term ‘‘higher volume port area’’ in section 155.1020 of the Coast Guard regulations (33 C.F.R. 155.1020) by striking ‘‘Port Angeles, WA’’ in paragraph (13) of that section and inserting ‘‘Cape Flattery, WA’’.

There are about 15 higher volume port areas in the United States and these areas are subject to the most stringent response planning requirements.

As you might expect, these include the biggest oil ports in the nation, including New York, Houston, New Orleans, and Prince William Sound, Alaska.  In these high volume port areas, large amounts of response equipment has to be on standby, ready to deploy on very short notice.

However, Cape Flattery is on the northwest tip of Washington State. The fishing port of Neah Bay is nearby, but it is hardly a major oil port.

Hmm, so what did that accomplish? That simple definitional change meant that all tankers approaching the Strait of Juan de Fuca and oil terminals closer to Seattle had to have approved plans and meet the most stringent response times following a spill anywhere along our inland waters.  This required adding response vessels and equipment out near the entrance of the Strait and increasing the ability to rapidly respond to any spills.

There are already several bills in Congress this year that would further amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. In between spills and restoration work, we keep an eye on their progress through the legislative process.

You can read these articles for more information on the Oil Pollution Act of 1990:


Polar Bears and Response Drills in Alaska

Tue, 08/15/2017 - 08:10

NOAA scientists scout for polar bears prior to disembarking for fieldwork at Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Image credit: NOAA.

How do you handle a polar bear covered in oil?  That was just one aspect of the annual Mutual Aid Deployment exercise last month on Alaska’s North Slope oil field.

Staff members from our Emergency Response Division and the Assessment and Restoration Division as well as other NOAA offices participated in the three-day exercise. Each year government agencies, oil companies, and oil spill removal organizations in the region work together to respond to a simulated oil spill in Alaska.

The scenario for this year’s drill was the simulation of an oil pipeline leak in the Beaufort Sea and the rescue of an oiled polar bear. In the exercise, the pipeline that was leaking belonged to Hilcorp, Alaska LLC. It was the first year the oil company hosted the event.

In addition to our office, participants included:

The exercise included field equipment deployment, an Incident Command Center, and remote operations in Anchorage.

Emergency Response Division staff participated in the Incident Management Team at the command center established at Hilcorp’s Endicott Facility on the Beaufort Sea north of Prudhoe Bay.

Staff from the Assessment and Restoration Division led the Natural Resource Damage Assessment component of the drill, that included a tabletop exercise with representatives from the state and federal agencies, and staff from Hilcorp. One Damage Assessment liaison was at the Endicott facility and the rest of the team participated remotely from Anchorage. The drill provided an opportunity to practice how a natural resource damage assessment would work with response early in a spill situation.

NOAA provides scientific support to the Coast Guard during oil and chemical spills, and the tools we’ve developed are an extension of that support. During the exercise, our GNOME trajectory-forecasting tool kept participants updated on where the spilled oil could go.

Arctic ERMA, our online Environmental Response Management Application, was continuously being updated with information on where the oil was as well as the location all the responders and their equipment. Environmental Sensitivity Index maps, which identify vulnerable wildlife and habitat potentially at risk from the spill, were displayed in ERMA.

Information visualized on Arctic ERMA during the Mutual Aid Deployment exercise on Alaska’s North Slope oil field. Image credit: NOAA.

So how do you handle an oiled polar bear?

Very carefully and with a close eye on a timer.

Part of the drill was to see if an oil-injured polar bear could be tranquilized, pulled from the water, cleaned and caged before waking up.

Standing in for a real polar bear was an industrial-sized drum, filled with sand, covered with white cloth, and sporting a molded-foam head. The idea was to put the bear in the ocean and have emergency responders rescue the bear.

The rescue went well although some miscommunication early in the day added an unexpected element of realism—the team setting the fake bear in the lagoon did not anchor it, and due to heavy seas and winds on drill day, the bear drifted out into open water. However, the polar bear response team performed expertly and the fake bear was successfully located and rescued within the time allotted.

The fake polar bear used for the Mutual Aid Deployment exercise on Alaska’s North Slope oil field. Image credit: NOAA.

You can read more about other simulated oil (and oranges and rubber ducks) spills in these articles:

 

Zachary Winters-Staszak, Catherine Berg, and Sarah Allan of the Office of Response and Restoration contributed to this article.

 


Weston Mill Dam Removal Project in Full Swing

Mon, 08/14/2017 - 08:05

Removal of the Weston Mill Dam is an important step in long-term efforts to restore habitat in the Raritan River watershed. Image credit: Stony Brook-Millstone Watershed Association.

Fish will once again be able to swim unencumbered in New Jersey’s Millstone River as removal of the Weston Mill Dam begins.

The project is part of the settlement negotiated to compensate for potential injuries to fish and other in-river trust resources from long-term hazardous substance releases related to the American Cyanamid Superfund Site nearby Bridgewater, New Jersey. The site was used for manufacturing of chemicals, dyes, and pharmaceuticals and for coal tar distillation from the early 1900s until 1999.

“Removal of the Weston Mill Dam is an important step in long-term efforts to restore habitat in the Raritan River watershed,” said David Westerholm, Director of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration. “Cooperative resolution of natural resource damage liability benefits everyone – the public, industry, and the ecosystem. These collaborative efforts lower damage assessment costs, reduce risk of litigation, and – most importantly – shorten the time between injury and restoration of public resources.”

Removal of the dam will return the flow of the river closer to its natural state restoring passage for migratory fish, and improving water quality and habitat without negative impacts to endangered species or cultural, sociological, or archaeological resources.

The project will open about 4.5 miles of the Millstone River to migratory species – including American shad and river herring  -that spend much of their lives in the ocean and estuaries but need to return to freshwater rivers and streams to spawn, according to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. American eel, which spawn in the ocean but spend much of their lives in rivers and streams, will also benefit.

The dam removal will also benefit people by increasing safety and improving recreational and scenic enjoyment of the waterway A free-flowing river allows safer kayaking, canoeing, and fishing.

Here in the United States, millions of dams and other barriers block fish from reaching upstream spawning and rearing habitat. Although dams often provide benefits, such as hydroelectric power and irrigation many, including the Weston Mill Dam, are now obsolete and present a hazard.

Fish ladders, bypass channels, and rock ramps are forms of Technical Fish Passage that may be considered when dam removal is not an option, according to NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Restoration Center.

NOAA and our co-trustees – the U.S. Department of Interior and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – secured removal of the Weston Mill Dam through cooperative resolution of natural resource damages and ongoing work with our local partners including the Stony Brook-Millstone Watershed Association.

You can read more about the Raritan River in this article:

Reyhan Mehran of the Office of Response and Restoration and Carl Alderson of the NOAA Fisheries Restoration Center contributed to this article.


National Aquarium Helping Reduce Plastic Pollution

Fri, 08/11/2017 - 07:52

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

This year the National Aquarium eliminated all single-use plastic foodware in its building. Image credit: National Aquarium.

By Maggie OstdahlNational Aquarium 

Experts estimate there are more than 5 trillion pieces of plastic floating in our ocean, with millions of tons entering the ocean from land each year. It’s estimated that Americans use (and throw away) about 500 million plastic straws each day, and 100 billion plastic bags each year. Disposable plastic items easily wash or blow into the ocean, where they can have devastating effects on marine animals and ecosystems.

Plastic pollution also affects human health—humans are ingesting the plastic that has found its way into our food web, and the production of plastic releases toxins into our atmosphere that have negative impacts on our health.

We also have a financial interest in reducing plastic pollution, since the cost of waste management and litter cleanup largely comes from our tax dollars. Recycling helps, but reducing the use of plastic is a critical first step in keeping it out of the ocean.

The National Aquarium is proud to contribute to the global reduction of plastics, not only through advocacy and education, but also through our own operations. This year, we eliminated all single-use plastic foodware in our building.

This change involved many of our partners, including Sodexo, the Classic Catering People and Pepsi, and a shift in the products we offer in our on-site cafes. For example, disposable plastic lids, straws, stirrers and utensils have been replaced with compostable options. Juices and soft drinks are available, but no longer sold in single-use bottles, eliminating the average 85,000 single-use soda and juice bottles previously sold within our building each year.

Prior to this year, we also removed plastic bags in our gift shops, eliminated single-use water bottles and installed water bottle filling stations throughout our building. As a result of these changes, we estimate that at least 300,000 water and soft drink bottles have been removed from the waste stream each year.

Our most recent effort to eliminate single-use plastics is also part of our leadership role in the Aquarium Conservation Partnership, or ACP, a first-of-its-kind collaboration of 19 U.S. aquariums that have joined together to take collective action to address plastic pollution.

Alongside Monterey Bay Aquarium and Shedd Aquarium, we’ve led the charge to produce In Our Hands, the ACP’s first consumer campaign. In Our Hands seeks to bring awareness and action to plastic pollution, and empower the participating aquariums’ 20 million visitors—and millions more in their communities—to shift away from single-use plastics and adopt innovative alternatives.

The participating aquariums have also pledged to significantly reduce or eliminate plastic beverage bottles by December 2020 and showcase innovative alternatives to single-use plastics in their facilities.

Whether through consumer education or operations within our own walls, the National Aquarium is proud to work with other organizations and our on-site partners to lead the fight against plastic pollution. Reducing plastic at or near the source of production is crucial to keeping it from becoming marine debris that harms wildlife and people, and educating consumers about these harmful effects is key to inspiring change.

 

Maggie Ostdahl is the Conservation Operations Manager at the National Aquarium who never leaves the house without her reusables. The National Aquarium is a nonprofit organization with a mission to inspire conservation of the world’s aquatic treasures. Consistently ranked as one of the nation’s two top aquariums, we have hosted over 51 million guests and educate more than 100,000 students each year. We prioritize our work to focus on pressing issues in urban conservation, climate change and coastal resiliency, and ocean and human health.


Oils Spills and Animal Rescue in Alaska and Beyond

Thu, 08/10/2017 - 07:02

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

 

This harbor seal was discovered hurt and alone on a beach South Naknek, Alaska. She was admitted to Alaska SeaLife Center’s Wildlife Response Program and after gaining her health, was release back into the wild. You can read more of her story here. All activities involving animals are authorized under ASLC’s NOAA Stranding Agreement. Image credit: Alaska SeaLife Center.

By Carrie Goertz, Alaska SeaLife Center

I love working with animals but being a bit of an organizational geek, I also enjoy the logistical side of preparation. The right tool for the job, a place for everything, and everything in its place gives me great satisfaction.

Here in Seward, Alaska, we have built a well-equipped facility with depth in space, resources, and personnel. But chances are oil spills will occur somewhere other than our home base. We have partnered with oil spill response organizations to provide support in other key areas with a large industrial and civic presence. These and other fixed facilities have the advantage of being close to population centers, providing shelter, and meeting the needs of stranded animals and our staff.

However, Alaska is a bit on the large side and has thousands of miles of remote coastlines dotted with small communities. As trans-Arctic shipping increases, so does the risk of accidents potentially affecting these shores, and we cannot count on spills happening where our equipment is conveniently available. In fact, we need to be prepared to be completely self-sufficient and independent of even the smallest communities so as not to over-tax their resources with our activities.

So how do we take our rehab center on the road? Or rather, how do we take it down the beach, since most of Alaska’s shore is not accessible by road? We need a deployable set of equipment to treat impacted animals that will also meet the needs of the staff required to care for them.

Something like a MASH unit, a mobile army surgical hospital, or perhaps a ‘Mobile Animal Stranding Hospital!’ The team at Alaska Sea Life Center had already come up with an easily shipped seal pool and a list of equipment needed to support the oiled, stranded animals at fixed facilities as part of our partnerships with oil spill response organizations.

Now we needed to focus on those additional items needed if we were required to provide our own electricity, water, shelter, and staff needs, all of which needed to be compact and deployable.

Ultimately, we settled on a tiny-house-meets-Transformers approach in which we fill specially designed shipping container units with the necessary supplies and equipment, ready to be deployed where needed. Once on site, they transform into a veterinary clinic, food storage and kitchen, animal housing—including a pool, totes, crates, and dry area—and staff area.

Tiny-house-meets-Transformers in the Alaska SeaLife Center’s design for a mobile animal hospital. Each unit is filled with the necessary supplies and equipment to help wildlife, ready to be deployed where needed. Image credit: Alaska SeaLife Center.

But how will we staff our responses? Initially, we plan to draw from our own staff, as many are both Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response certified and experienced with caring for marine mammals and are based right here in Alaska. We have also partnered with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to train additional personnel experienced with the unique challenges of caring for marine mammals. Their home institutions have agreed to allow trained staff to deploy in support of events, but their staff are also trained to assist with events in their local area.

In combination, these efforts keep us ready, keep Alaska ready, and keep zoos and aquaria across the country ready.

To read more about the Association of Zoos and Aquariums program to train members for wildlife spill response:

Zoos and Aquariums Training for Oil Spill Emergency Response

Read more stories in our series on the effects of pollutants on wildlife:

 

Carrie Goertz is the staff veterinarian at the Alaska SeaLife Center overseeing the program of veterinary care for collection, research, and stranded animals. Special interests include helping the center and other zoological facilities being prepared to respond to disasters as well as how information about animals in zoological facilities and free ranging wildlife can help provide the best care for both groups.

Opened in 1998, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a private, non-profit research institution and public aquarium. ASLC generates and shares scientific knowledge to promote understanding and stewardship of Alaska’s marine ecosystems, and is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. To learn more, visit www.alaskasealife.org.

 


How Marine Debris is Impacting Marine Animals

Wed, 08/09/2017 - 07:42

and What You Can do About it……

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration looks at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

Left: Animals can become entangled in marine debris, particularly in items such as derelict fishing lines and nets. Image credit: NOAA. Right: Sea turtles entangled in debris run the risk of drowning if they are prevented from reaching the surface to breathe. Image credit: NOAA.

Marine debris is one of the most widespread pollution problems facing our ocean and waterways today. This issue of solid, man-made materials in the ocean or Great Lakes is a global one that leaves no part of the world untouched by debris and its impacts. These negative effects impact people on a daily basis, from economic losses to potential health hazards, but can impact marine animals most severely. Animals are impacted by marine debris in a variety of ways, including:

Ingestion. Marine debris can be ingested by animals that either mistake it for food or accidentally consume it along with their meal. This can create a lot of problems, ranging from mild discomfort to a dangerous blockage. Debris can fill up stomachs, causing an animal to feel full while depriving it of the nutritious meal it needs. In these cases, animals may starve with a full stomach.

Left: The contents of this bird’s stomach shows marine debris can block up an animal’s system. When plastic debris is ingested, it can make the animal feel full and robs them of getting the nutrients they need. Image Credit: NOAA. Right: This sea turtle was found after ingesting balloon debris, likely mistaking it for food. Image Credit: Blair Witherington, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

Entanglement. Animals may become tangled up in marine debris and unable to free themselves. This can affect the animal in a variety of ways, ranging from mild discomfort to seriously impacting the animal’s ability to survive. Entangled animals may get abrasions from the debris, resulting in a dangerous infection. If movement is restricted, animals may not be able to feed and air-breathing fauna may drown if entangled underwater.

Habitat damage. Marine debris can also harm animals indirectly by impacting their habitat. Large or heavy debris may damage or smother sensitive habitats, such as coral reefs and sea grass.

Left: Debris can damage or smother sensitive habitats like coral reefs. Image credit: NOAA. Right: After six months of a derelict spiny lobster trap sitting on top of seagrass, the impact to this habitat can be readily observed. Image credit: NOAA.

Non-native species. Non-native species may hitch a ride on marine debris from one region to another. This might sound like a convenient way to travel, but if these introduced species become invasive, they can wreak havoc on an ecosystem by depleting food sources or destroying habitat.

Thankfully, there is hope! Although debris is a big problem that has many negative impacts, it is also a completely preventable problem that we have the power to address. The NOAA Marine Debris Program has many efforts underway to prevent and remove marine debris in order to reduce these harmful effects, coordinating with partners on local solutions to this global issue. Many other organizations are stepping up to do their part to address debris, from reducing their distribution of unnecessary single-use plastics to involving the community in caring for their local area.

You can get involved, too! Evaluate your habits and change those that may contribute to marine debris. Follow the “3Rs” and reduce, reuse, and recycle. An additional “R” to keep in mind is to refuse items you don’t need, like a plastic straw in your water glass. Spread the word to your family and friends so they can participate, too. If you’d like to get more involved, join a cleanup in your area (subscribe to our e-newsletter for a list of cleanups each month) or start one yourself and use the Marine Debris Tracker app to record your finds. Working together, we can make a big difference in the fight against marine debris.

To learn more about the NOAA Marine Debris Program’s efforts to remove and prevent marine debris, head to marinedebris.noaa.gov.

Read more stories in our series on the effects of pollutants on wildlife:

 


A Legacy of Industry and Toxins in Northern New Jersey: Striped Bass and Blue Crab

Tue, 08/08/2017 - 08:41

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

Newark Bay and its tributaries are among the places in northern New Jersey where the federal government has initiated cleanup and restoration activities to address contamination related to industrial releases of hazardous waste. Image credit: NOAA.

Northern New Jersey’s industrial history continues to effect two popular recreational fisheries, striped bass and blue crab. Examining how toxic waste from the past continues to impact people and wildlife today shows the importance of continuing to cleanup and restore polluted habitats.

Striped Bass

Striped bass is prized both for its taste and for the challenge in catching the fish. Its popularity in sports fishing circles rivals that of salmon. Yet because of pollutants found in the fish, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection cautions people to limit their consumption of striped bass caught in the state and advises high-risk individuals—including children—not to eat them at all. For striped bass caught in some of the northern parts of the State, like in the Newark Bay Complex – the bay and its tidal tributaries – the department has even stricter recommendations for limiting consumption.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the northeastern part of our country was heavily industrialized. Plastics, dyes, pharmaceuticals, and paint are just a few examples of important manufacturing that took place in these areas and that released, as by-products, toxic substances such as mercury, chromium, arsenic, lead, and PCBs into local bodies of water.

Striped bass – a popular New Jersey sport fish and top-level predator – can accumulate high concentrations of unsafe contaminants. Image credit: NOAA.

Because striped bass move inland to spawn, they are accessible to recreational fishers but exposed to the contaminated sediments that remain in some of these areas from their industrial history. Striped bass is a long-lived predatory fish that feeds on smaller fish, so bioaccumulative contaminants (like mercury and PCBs) can build up in its tissues. These contaminants are harmful to people who consume the fish and are unhealthy for the fish themselves.

Blue Crab

Found in brackish estuarine areas in the same region are blue crabs. Blue crabs are among the most sought-after shellfish—both commercially and recreationally—and are found from Nova Scotia to Uruguay. Callinectes sapidus, the Latin name for blue crab, means “savory beautiful swimmer.” At about 4 inches long and 9 inches wide, they are prized for their taste.

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection warns that:

“…blue claw crabs from the Newark Bay region are contaminated with harmful levels of dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Eating blue claw crabs from this region may cause cancer and harm brain development in unborn and young children. Fish consumption advisories in this region for blue claw crabs are DO NOT CATCH! AND DO NOT EAT!”

Because blue crab live on the bottom of waterways where contaminants tend to accumulate, they can be unsafe to eat in formerly industrial areas. It’s always important to be aware of any consumption advisories in place for bodies of water before eating what you catch. Image credit: NOAA.

Blue crab serve an important role in the ecosystem as benthic (bottom) feeders and important prey for other fish. But because they live at the bottom of waterways, those found in formerly industrial areas, can be in direct contact with contaminated sediments that are the legacy of the historical discharge of industrial wastes and these contaminants can accumulate in their bodies. In addition to making the blue crab unsuitable for human consumption, those toxins adversely affect the blue crabs themselves, negatively impacting their survival, growth, or reproduction.

Restoring Clean and Healthy Habitats

The good news is that the process of cleanup and restoration is in progress at many of these contaminated waste sites in northern New Jersey including Newark Bay as well as throughout the country.

The industries that contributed to the pollution were developing products we depend on and were bolstering the nation’s economy but it is also essential to rehabilitate contaminated waterways and restore the habitats on which these species depend.

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly known as Superfund, guides the reduction of exposure of wildlife like striped bass and blue crab to contaminated areas and enables the Trustees, including NOAA,  to recover the costs of restoring or replacing the equivalent of the resources that the public has lost because of the contamination.

The Trustees work to ensure that the cleanups minimize ongoing injury to wildlife and the people who use those resources. Trustees also restore clean healthy habitats for fish and shellfish to compensate for the lost use of areas that were contaminated; restored areas are designed to improve fish and shellfish populations and enhance recreational access.

For more information on our restoration work in New Jersey, read the following articles:

Read more stories in our series on the effects of pollutants on wildlife:

How to Locate Wildlife Threatened During Oil Spills

 

Reyhan Meharn, NOAA Regional Resource Coordinator with the Assessment and Restoration Division, and Vicki Loe, Communications Coordinator for NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, contributed to this article.


How to Locate Wildlife Threatened During Oil Spills

Mon, 08/07/2017 - 08:00

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

Harbor seals are one of the many species cataloged in our Environmental Sensitivity Index. Image credit: Marge Brigadier, NOAA Monterey Bay Aquarium.

Scenario: You’re a state natural resource manager for a coastal salt marsh and just got a call that a tanker spilled thousands of gallons of crude oil that is now heading for your shores. You have maybe two hours before the oil starts washing up on your coast.

What do you do?

How do you determine what animals may be in jeopardy?

How do you prepare a response plan to protect those species?

Anticipating the information state and federal staff need when responding to an oil spill or other environmental hazard is what we do. In addition to providing scientific support, we’ve developed guides and databases for resource and response managers to use in those early, sometimes chaotic, hours of an incident.

One of the tools we’ve developed is our Environmental Sensitivity Index maps. The maps and data show where species are found, along with information about monthly seasonality, breeding and life stages occurring, concentrations, and qualifiers that indicate why a species occurrence may have increased vulnerabilities.

In responding to hazardous materials released into the natural environment, it’s important for responders to know that some animal species are especially vulnerable to spills and cleanup activities. Animals and their habitats tend to be most at risk from oil spills when:

  • There are many individuals concentrated in a small area, such as a seal haulout area or a bay where waterfowl concentrate during migration.
  • Early life stages such as seabird rookeries, spawning beds used by anadromous fish, or turtle nesting beaches are present.
  • Oil affects areas important to specific life stages such as foraging or over-wintering sites, or migration routes

Our Environmental Sensitivity Index maps categorize and display environmental hazard sensitive animals and their habitats, and habitats that are themselves sensitive to spilled oil, such as coral reefs. This map shows part of the Maine coast. Image credit: NOAA.

What information is in an Environmental Sensitivity Index?

It’s important for emergency responders to know as much as possible about what species may be adversely affected by a hazardous spill. Our Environmental Sensitivity Index, or ESI, maps include critical information on:

  • Rare, threatened, endangered, and species of special concern
  • Commercial and recreational wildlife
  • Areas of high species concentration
  • Areas where sensitive life-stages or activities occur

In addition to information on wildlife resources along the nation’s coastlines, the indexes provide detailed information on shorelines and on how people use the natural resources present.

How we gather biological information

The Environmental Sensitivity Index biology information is a compilation of existing data and regional knowledge. A list of all threatened or endangered species in the area is amended with other regional species that are of local concern, or are particularly vulnerable to oil.

Once an initial species list is created, the search for existing species distribution and seasonal information begins. This may come from state or local government, academics, non-profit organizations, or non-affiliated experts. A typical ESI atlas will have upwards of 100 contributing expert sources and documents.

The ESI challenge is how best to compile and integrate this diverse data to create a product useful to responders who need to quickly assess an area of potential oil impact. As data is processed, the contributing experts are asked to review the species distribution and attributes to assure the data is presented accurately and as intended.

Because there are often multiple sources for a single species, this is particularly important in order to assure the experts are comfortable with how their information will be presented. This is a collaborative process during which additional species may be identified and added to the species list, and additional resource experts are identified. Reviews continue through the finalization of the ESI data and tables.

How to access the data

The Environmental Sensitivity Index data is designed to work within a geographic information system. The data can also be accessed publicly through a variety of free tools including our ESI toolkit and many of our Environmental Response Management Application, or ERMA®.

Using the query tool in ERMA you can isolate a particular area by making a polygon and then choose which ESI data to display. Image credit: NOAA.

Making decisions during an environmental crisis sometimes requires difficult trade offs. Having this valuable information ready beforehand helps spill planners and responders prioritize areas to protect from oil and identify appropriate cleanup strategies.

Jill Petersen, ESI program manager, contributed to this article.


Incident Responses for July 2017

Thu, 08/03/2017 - 09:11

The U.S. Coast Guard requested a vessel drift analysis and trajectory for the 400 gallons of diesel fuel associated with the FV Grayling that capsized off the coast of Kodiak, Alaska July 21, 2017. The Alaska ShoreZone photo shows the gravel shoreline most immediately adjacent to the sinking location of the Grayling. Image credit: NOAA.

Aug. 3, 2017 – Every month our Emergency Response Division provides scientific expertise and services to the U.S. Coast Guard.

Our services include everything from running oil spill trajectories to possible effects on wildlife and fisheries, and estimates on how long the oil may stay in the environment.

In July, our scientific support coordinators responded to requests for a vessel drift analysis and trajectory, an analysis of currents and winds to help identify the potential source of an oil sheen, and list of sensitive species and resources that could be effected from warehouse fire near a river.

Our Incident News website has information on oil spills and other incidents where we provided scientific support.

Here are some of this month’s responses:

Drifting Fisheries Buoy Trajectory

FV Grayling, Kodiak, AK

Tanker Truck Spill Florida Keys MM 70

Mississippi Canyon 736 Platform Discharge

North River Street Fire – Portland, OR

Wreck 1487

UTV Eric Haney

FV Donna

FV Ketok

FV Bunchie


A Summer like NOAAther: A NOAA Intern’s Experience

Wed, 08/02/2017 - 11:31

Danny Hoffman, constituent and legislative affairs intern, standing in front of the wave pool at NOAA headquarters in Silver Spring, Maryland. The pool, Coastline, is the work of artist Jim Sanborn and represents the Atlantic coastline. A NOAA monitoring station at Woods Hole, Massachusetts transfers instantaneous wave heights via modem to Silver Spring and then transferred to the wave pool. Image credit: NOAA.

By Danny Hoffman, Office of Response and Restoration intern

When I told my friends and family that I would be interning at NOAA this summer, the first reply I often got was “NOAA? Aren’t they the ones that do the weather report?”

I have to profess that as a government and history double major, my knowledge of NOAA did not extend much beyond that before starting my internship. When asked what I would be doing, I mostly rattled off phrases from the internship description posted, not knowing many more specifics.

However, after a very rewarding 10 weeks as a constituent and legislative affairs intern at NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, not only do I know much more about NOAA than I could have previously imagined, I have also gained valuable experience working in a government agency.

As my time at NOAA ends, I’ll share some of my experiences, as well as my impressions of interning with the federal government.

What does Response and Restoration mean?

First, “Response and Restoration” is a bit of a misnomer. Rather than physically clean up oil and chemical spills, one of the office’s roles is to provide scientific support to the Federal On-Scene Coordinators during spills. The Emergency Response Division does this by calculating the trajectory of spilled materials in bodies of water and providing information on weather and resources at risk for the affected areas, among other support.

The Assessment and Restoration Division assesses damages to natural resources in the aftermath of a spill, and finally, the Marine Debris Division helps to monitor and cleanup the thousands of tons of marine debris in our waterways and oceans. Even after 10 weeks, I am still learning new aspects of this office every day.

Learning to Love Science

As someone coming from a social science academic background with limited scientific expertise, I initially felt intimidated interning for a government agency principally focused on science.

On top of that, this was my first internship. However, those worries were largely laid to rest on the first day, when to my surprise, rather than finding scientists in lab coats huddling around beakers—as I like to imagine my friends majoring in science do all day—I instead found an office with resource coordinators, communication specialists, NOAA commissioned officers, and scientists, none of whom were in lab coats.

Some of the things I learned my first day here were:

I quickly had to adapt to navigating the jungle of acronyms. Thankfully, I finally found an acronym that spoke to my feelings of sinking in the sea of letters and abbreviations: SOS. Which, incidentally, stands for both Science of Oil Spills, a class that helps train and educate spill responders, and Science on a Sphere, a room-sized globe that allows the over 400 data sets to be projected onto it.

Behind the Scenes

While providing scientific expertise during spills is one of the main missions of this office, their work extends far beyond that. During my internship, I worked under policy analyst Robin Garcia. She is responsible for communications between the office and Congress. This ranges from organizing tours of spill restoration sites in congressional districts, to requests for technical information about the office’s work to Congress. Though this job may be more behind-the-scenes, it provides vital support for the office’s mission.

 More than Just Brewing Coffee

When picturing an intern, you may think of someone delegated to the mailroom, licking envelopes and refilling the water cooler.

I actually did help refill the water cooler, but only because of my cubicle’s close location to it. Otherwise, I did little grunt work. When I wasn’t out attending Capitol Hill briefings, or outreach events, my main duties included tracking key legislation that would affect the office’s mission, and creating a tracker for the Strategic Plan that will continue be used through 2021.

My activities were varied; I attended an outreach event at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, helped review a training manual on environmental compliance, and went to a briefing on the Hill, all within the first week!

From white papers to windows

I was also fully integrated into the office, from sitting and participating in conference calls with the outreach team, to interviewing NOAA scientists in Hawaii. That interview was for one of my main projects this summer, researching and writing a white paper reviewing the office’s outreach efforts on oil-by-rail spills.

As someone used to writing historical and political science research papers, one of my biggest challenges was adapting to the more technical and explanatory, or scientific, writing style of a governmental white paper.

Also, while this may seem strange to some, getting my own cubicle proved more exciting than I was expecting. As part of that, I also learned to deal with a struggle affecting thousands of government employees: not having a view of a window by their cubicle (though thankfully I was no more than a five-second walk away from one).

Intern Danny Hoffman sitting at his desk in his windowless cubicle. Image credit: NOAA.

Some other highlights of time include attending Capitol Hill Oceans Week, the nation’s premier ocean conference where I attended panels and met with leading ocean science and policy experts, and a communications training day, which included workshops on how to constructively talk to reporters during interviews, public speaking tips, and not one, but two mock interviews.

A true dive into the world of policy

As I leave NOAA to enter my senior year at the University of Maryland, I am thankful for the sweeping introduction this internship has given me to the world of policy, and for all of my NOAA coworkers who supported me during my internship.

From preparing white papers to speaking daily with leading professionals who make policy, much of what I have learned and experienced simply could not have been taught in a lecture hall.

I am excited for a possible future career with the federal government, and encourage anyone with an interest in policy, marine science, or public relations to apply for an internship with the Office of Response and Restoration in the future!

 

Danny Hoffman is a rising senior at the University of Maryland, College Park, and is currently double majoring in Government and History, with a minor in Spanish. Outside of interning for NOAA, Danny enjoys traveling (though not on Metro), reading about U.S. History, and playing his viola.


Staff Participate in NOAA Science Camp in Seattle

Wed, 07/26/2017 - 07:50

A camper pours a bit of sesame oil into a fish tank to simulate a marine oil spill. NOAA Science Camp participants learned the basics of how spilled oil behaves, effects the environment, and how we forecast where it might go. Image credit: NOAA

The U.S. Coast Guard announces a ship collision in Puget Sound off Shilshole Bay. What happens now?

Trying to answer that question started the journey of participants in this year’s NOAA Science Camp. Washington Sea Grant organizes the popular camp and each year participants discover how NOAA oceanographers, biologists, chemists, physical scientists and others from the Office of Response and Restoration respond to hazardous spills.

More than 90 campers participated in 10 two-hour sessions during the two weeks of science camp, held July 10-21 at NOAA’s Western Regional Center in Seattle. Guided by staff from both the Emergency Response Division and the Assessment and Restoration Division campers explored answering the five questions our response staff ask during spill incidents:

  • Where will the oil go?
  • How will it behave in, on the water, and on different types of shorelines?
  • What biological and human resources may be at risk during a spill?
  • How might the oil adversely affect these resources?
  • What can be done to help?

Camp participants learned what scientific data is gathered to answer those questions. They also were introduced to response tools like our GNOME modeling software, and Environmental Sensitivity Index maps.

Our staff also helped campers learn about pollutants from cars, homes, agriculture, and other types of land uses and the effects on the Puget Sound.

In other lessons, campers simulated the flow of water and pollutants in the environment, using tabletop watershed models and building groundwater models. They then brainstormed methods to clean up, contain, and prevent watershed pollution.

In another session, campers rolled up their sleeves, donned lab googles and gloves and become aquatic toxicologists for a day, testing samples for toxic chemicals and water quality parameters and learned how to interpret their data.

Later in the week, campers had to solve a science mystery. They visited several NOAA offices to gather more information about various aspect of the scenario and then applied what they learned to test their hypotheses.

Campers presented their findings and conclusions on the last day of camp each week and were evaluated by a scientist representative from each office.

Staff science camp instructors included Marla Steinhoff, Mark Dix, Dalina Thrift-Viveros, Dylan Righi, Chris Barker, Matthew Bissell, Gary Shigenaka, Nicolle Rutherford, Amy MacFadyen, and Rebecca Hoff.

Marla Steinhoff and Amy MacFadyen contributed to this article.


Chinese Delegation Visits NOAA Office of Response and Restoration

Tue, 07/25/2017 - 07:51

The Office of Response and Restoration hosted a delegate from China’s National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service in Seattle. From L: Yufei Lin, Jun Tan, Yijun Zhang, NOAA staff John Tarpley, Scott Lundgren, Glen Watabayshi, and Aijun Zhang. Image credit: NOAA

As part of our ongoing commitment to share our expertise in spill response with other nations, the Emergency Response Division recently hosted a delegation from China’s National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service.

The Chinese agency requested the meeting to learn about our strategies and tools for responding to environmental hazards and to exchange information about China’s marine emergency response programs.

The goal of the two-day meeting in Seattle was to learn about each other’s emergency response programs and to discuss the possibilities of collaborate in the future, according to Glen Watabayshi, chief of the Emergency Response Division’s Technical and Scientific Services Branch.

During the meeting, Watabayshi presented our oil spill response and planning tools including the GNOME modeling software and TAP trajectory planning software. Jill Petersen explained Environmental Sensitivity Index mapping and methodology. Mark Miller presented the CAMEO software suite and CAFE tool. Other emergency division staff participants included Scott Lundgren, Mark Dix, John Tarpley, Kristen Faiferlick, and Brianne Connolly.

The visiting contingent included executive director Yijun Zhang, senior research scientist Yufei Lin and senior research scientist Jun Tan.

“We spent a valuable two days with the staff from China’s National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service,” said Scott Lundgren, chief of the Emergency Response Division. “Staying in touch with other national counterparts on how they conduct and advance response and restoration is valuable. As large spills have declined in frequency with a strong prevention focus in oil production and transportation, it is even more important to stay current with practices and advances around the world.”

The Assessment and Restoration Division also participated in the meeting with Mary Baker presenting information on our environmental damage assessment techniques and tools and Ben Shorr explaining our online response management mapping tool, ERMA®. Jason Lehto from NOAA’s Restoration Center also presented. In addition, Aijun Zhang from NOAA’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services attended the meeting to help facilitate and act as an interpreter.

 

Glen Watabayshi, chief of the Emergency Response Division’s Technical and Scientific Services Branch, contributed to this article.


How to Clear Out a Lab: Use it or Pass it on

Fri, 07/21/2017 - 11:56

Beakers and jars are among the smaller supplies being cleared from the lab. Image credit: NOAA.

What do you do with excess beakers, boxes of test tubes, wind gauges, oceanographic buoys, and other science equipment that has been phased out of routine operations? In the spirit of reuse of viable material and the reduction of needless waste, you give it to other scientific organizations.

That’s what we are doing. In the past, we needed the lab and its equipment to conduct tests related to spill response and other environmental hazards. As new programs within NOAA and other organizations emerged, the need to collect our own environmental data and conduct lab work was distributed among those offices.

That left us with a lab we no longer needed, full of equipment no longer in use. The room quickly became more storage room than science lab, filled with items that were in excellent shape. Rather than let the equipment languish and continue gathering dust, we decided it was time to share. If you’re a government agency it gets tricky when you have equipment no longer in use but still useable. It can’t just be given away. There are rules that have to be followed before you can give away equipment to an organization outside your own.

“My job was to find a home for everything that could still be used,” said Ensign Matthew Bissell, a regional response officer with the Emergency Response Division. “I started calling offices within NOAA and then the University of Washington.”

After his initial calls, Bissell said about half of the equipment was snapped up, particularly the larger pieces like oceanographic buoys, wind gauges, and water current meters.

Ensign Matthew Bissell in the lab. Many of the excess supplies were redistributed to other NOAA offices. Image credit: NOAA.

The lab is behind a locked door inside one of the old aircraft hangars at NOAA’s Western Regional Center in Seattle, remainders from the campus’s former use as a naval air station. Despite the building’s size, work space is always in demand. The Seattle campus houses the largest variety of NOAA programs at a single location in the United States.

One of the challenges of the project was to figure out what some of the equipment was and determine if it was still operational. Then it was time to sort out what we may still need and what was excess.

“Some of the stacked boxes had not been opened in over twenty years,” Bissell said.“I felt like an archaeologist unearthing a new-found site.”

The task quickly turned into an exploration of how new technologies change the way we work. A case in point was the discovery of a 1979 Polaroid camera once used in a process to convert paper navigation charts into digital bathymetric files. These bathymetric files are vital for modeling ocean currents.

“At the time, this camera turned a 12-hour job into 2 hours of work – greatly increasing our response capabilities.This procedure has since been replaced by an even faster technology,” Bissell said.

Just because we no longer use the technology, didn’t mean someone else couldn’t put the working camera to use. Bissell found a home for the camera at the University of Washington’s School of Art and Design. It’s now used by a student focusing on antiquated photography techniques.

Now that many of the larger pieces have found new homes, our focus is on the smaller items like sample jars, flasks, scales, and other miscellaneous laboratory supplies. It’s expected to take about a year to complete the project. We are periodically holding “open houses” for other branches of NOAA to visit the lab and take what might be of use to them.

You can read more about how technology has changed our work in these articles:


Incident Responses for June 2017

Wed, 07/05/2017 - 10:25

Skimmers come in various designs but all basically work by removing the oil layer from the surface of the water. Image credit: U.S. Coast Guard

Every month our Emergency Response Division provides scientific expertise and services to the U.S. Coast Guard. Our services include everything from running oil spill trajectories to possible effects on wildlife and fisheries, and estimates on how long the oil may stay in the environment.

Several calls in June required our help to determine areas that might be effected by possible chemical releases. In those incidents, we used our CAMEO Chemicals modeling software to identify areas at risk.

Our Incident News website has information on oil spills and other incidents where we provided scientific support.

Here are some of this month’s responses:


Proposed Settlement for St. Louis River Superfund Site

Fri, 06/30/2017 - 12:27

As part of the proposed restoration non-native cattail, seen here, will be removed and replaced with native emergent wetland species such as the culturally important wild rice. Image credit: NOAA

A major Superfund site along the St. Louis River is getting $8.2 million to clean up and restore a portion of the river historically polluted by industrial waste.

The Superfund site is about 255 acres of land and river embayments located primarily in Duluth, Minnesota, and extending into the St. Louis River, including Stryker Bay. High levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other pollutants prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to place the area on the National Priorities List in 1983.

Since 1890, the St. Louis River/Interlake/Duluth Tar site has been an active industrial area and included coking plants, tar and chemical companies, pig iron production, meatpacking, and rail-to-truck transfer stations. High levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the primary concern.

NOAA and other federal, state, and tribal partners worked with EPA to determine the nature, extent, and effects of the contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, also known as the Superfund law. The natural resource trustees also have governmental authority to seek compensation under this law for natural resources harmed by decades of industrial wastes and by-products discharged into the St. Louis River.

The proposed settlement includes $6.5 million for restoration activities consistent with a proposed Restoration Plan / Environmental Assessment. Of the possible restoration alternatives, the draft Restoration Plan recommends:

  • Kingsbury Bay: Restoration of a 70-acre shallow, sheltered embayment habitat that will add recreational access areas for fishing and a boat launch, improve habitat, and reduce invasive vegetation.
  • Kingsbury Creek Watershed: Activities to reduce sediment accumulation, improve water quality, and support the shallow sheltered bay habitat of the restored Kingsbury Bay.
  • Wild Rice Restoration: Enhancement of wild rice stands within the estuary.
  • Cultural Education Opportunities: Development of informational displays to communicate importance of the St. Louis River estuary’s cultural and natural resources.

The three polluting companies previously paid approximately $80 million to clean up the Superfund site.

 You can read more about the cleanup and restoration plans, and how to comment on the plans, at our Damage, Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program website.


Microplastics on National Park Beaches

Fri, 06/30/2017 - 07:38

National Park Service staff collect sand for microplastic and microfiber sampling at Cabrillo National Monument, California. Image credit: NPS, Cabrillo National Monument.

Guest post By:  Stefanie Whitmire, Ph.D., Research Scientist at the Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology & Forest Science, Clemson University

Microplastics are plastic pieces measuring less than five millimeters in size and in recent decades, there have been many studies that indicate a strong presence of this type of debris in marine and coastal environments.

Microplastics can come from a variety of sources. Some microplastics are manufactured at that small size as microbeads, found in products like toothpaste and facial scrubs, or pellets, which are used to make larger plastic items. Microfibers, another type of microplastic debris, come from synthetic items such as rope or clothing (like fleece).

Microplastics also come from the breakdown of larger plastic pieces, such as water bottles and fishing line. Unfortunately, the presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses risks to wildlife. Microplastics ingested by animals can physically damage the digestive tract and potentially expose the animal to chemicals and contaminants associated with the microplastic particle.

To investigate the number and distribution of microplastics on National Park beaches across the United States, researchers at Clemson University collaborated with the National Park Service to collect and analyze sand from 37 coastal National Parks. The study area included parks from the Northeast, Midwest (Great Lakes), West Coast, Alaska, and Pacific Islands. This collaborative effort, funded by the NOAA Marine Debris Program, provided a unique opportunity to quantify microplastic loads from a wide geographic distribution of coastal beaches, capturing a snapshot of microplastics around the country at one moment in time.

Most of the microplastics that were found in this study were in the form of fibers, but beads and plastic fragments were also observed (see microscope images below). The presence of microplastic debris was widespread and found at even the most remote areas, such as secluded parts of Alaska, but the highest recorded amounts of microplastics were at individual parks in the Great Lakes and the Pacific Islands. Interestingly, many sampled sites were far from urban centers but still had over 100 pieces of microplastics per kilogram of sand. This was observed in Alaska, along the northwest Pacific coastline, and the islands in the Pacific.

National Park Service staff collect sand for microplastic and microfiber sampling at Acadia National Park, Maine. Image credit: NPS, Acadia National Park

However, no clear patterns between quantity of microplastics and geographic features like urban centers or rivers were apparent. This was not completely unexpected given the wide geographic sampling and the numerous local factors that could influence microplastic abundance along these shorelines. For instance, beaches can capture microplastics from both open water bodies (the ocean or lakes) and riverine systems.

Additionally, beaches are dynamic systems, with constant movement of sand and other particles like shells, glass, and plastic. Understanding the movement and turnover of microplastics in beach environments will help us clarify the exposure and risk to wildlife in the future. Overall, this project provided a snapshot of microplastics around the United States and emphasized the pervasive nature of this type of marine debris.

Check out the final report, Quantification of Microplastics on National Park Beaches, for more information on this project. This guest post first appeared on the Marine Debris Program’s blog, visit that blog to read the complete post.


Science of Oil Spills Training: Apply for Fall 2017

Wed, 06/28/2017 - 07:38

These classes help prepare responders to understand the environmental risks and scientific considerations when addressing oil spills, and also include a field trip to a local beach to apply newly learned skills. Image credit: NOAA

We are now accepting applications for our next Science of Oil Spills class. The class will run the week of Nov. 13 in Anchorage, Alaska.

The Office of Response and Restoration is a leader in providing scientific support to the U.S. Coast Guard in spill response and in training emergency responders.

Our Emergency Response Division created the Science of Oil Spills class –called SOS– for the new and mid-level spill responder to educate them on the fundamentals of spill response. We offer several classes a year and train about 160 students annually.

Science of Oil Spills class topics include:

  • Fate and behavior of oil spilled in the environment.
  • An introduction to oil chemistry and toxicity.
  • A review of basic spill response options for open water and shorelines.
  • Spill case studies.
  • Principles of ecological risk assessment.
  • An introduction to damage assessment techniques.
  • Determining cleanup endpoints.

Throughout the training, an overarching theme will be answering the five key questions that help guide spill response:

  • What was spilled?
  • Where could it go?
  • What will it affect?
  • What harm could it cause?
  • What can be done to help?

To reinforce the classroom lectures and exercise, the students will also participate in field activities.

We will accept applications for the Anchorage class until Friday, Sept. 8. Applicants will be notified of their acceptance status by Friday, Sept. 29, via email.

To view the topics for the next class, download a sample agenda [PDF, 170 KB]. Please understand that classes are not filled on a first-come, first-served basis. We try to diversify the participant composition to ensure a variety of perspectives and experiences, to enrich the workshop for the benefit of all participants. Classes are generally limited to 40 participants.

For more information, and to learn how to apply for the class, visit the SOS Classes page.


Portland Harbor Superfund Site Restoration Plan Announced

Fri, 06/23/2017 - 12:30

The St. Johns Bridge spans the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. Image credit: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

NOAA announced a plan to restore natural resources in the Portland Harbor Superfund site, an 11-mile stretch of the Willamette River with several areas of contaminated sediments from more than 100 years of industrial and urban uses.

The river has been a hub of the Oregon city’s maritime commerce since the 1900s, and is still at the center of Portland’s commercial and recreational activities. Pollution from industrial and urban uses prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to declare it a Superfund site in 2000.

NOAA and the other members of the Portland Harbor Natural Resource Trustee Council recently released the Portland Harbor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Restoration Plan. The plan evaluates several alternatives and outlines the council’s chosen approach: Integrated Habitat Restoration. Officials believe the integrated plan will result in habitat restoration projects that benefit a wide variety of fish and wildlife that may have been harmed by contamination.

This integrated approach focuses on the habitat needs shared by many species, with a particular focus on juvenile Chinook salmon. It also establishes a geographic boundary to guide the location of restoration projects.

The Trustee Council seeks projects that will achieve the following:

  • Restore natural hydrology and floodplain function
  • Reestablish floodplain and riparian plant communities
  • Improve aquatic and riparian habitat
  • Increase habitat complexity
  • Provide connectivity to other habitats in the area
  • Restore recreation along the river while avoiding negative impacts to habitat

To read details of the plan, visit the Damage Assessment Remediation and Restoration Program website.


Working to Help Save Sea Turtles

Fri, 06/16/2017 - 08:05

The leatherback is the largest turtle–and one of the largest living reptiles–in the world. Leatherbacks are commonly known as pelagic (open ocean) animals, but they also forage in coastal waters, including the Gulf. Image credit: NOAA.

Sea turtles are among the most popular marine reptiles and have been in Earth’s ocean for more than 100 million years. Unfortunately, today sea turtles struggle to survive. Of the seven species of sea turtles, six are found in United States waters and all of those species are listed as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act.

One of the most devastating incidents to the survival of sea turtles was the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Both during the spill and in the aftermath, we worked with the Office of Protected Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other partners, to understand the extent of harm to sea turtles from the spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

For instance, it’s estimated that between 56,000 to 166,000 sea turtles were killed because of the spill. A special issue of Endangered Species Research features 20 scientific articles summarizing the impacts of the oil spill on protected species such as sea turtles and marine mammals.

The scientific studies, conducted by NOAA and partners, document the unprecedented mortality rate and long-term environmental impacts of the oil’s exposure to sea turtles. Findings from these research studies, in addition to other studies on other parts of the ecosystem, formed the basis of the natural resources damage assessment settlement with BP for up to $8.8 billion.

Additionally, our environmental response management software allows anyone to download the data from a scientific study, and then see that data on a map.

Our studies not only documented the injuries to sea turtles and other Gulf of Mexico plant and animal species, but also helped the entire scientific community understand the effects of oil spills on nature and our coastal communities.

You can learn more about our work with sea turtles and our studies from Deepwater Horizon in the flowing articles:

How Do Oil Spills Affect Sea Turtles?

What’s It Like Saving Endangered Baby Sea Turtles in Costa Rica?

Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Sea Turtles and Marine Mammals

Hold on to Those Balloons: They Could End Up in the Ocean

Oil and Sea Turtles: Biology, Planning, and Response

This view of ERMA® Deepwater Gulf Response, our online mapping tool, displays sea turtle data from response efforts and the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. This site served a critical role in the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and remains a valuable reference. Image credit: NOAA


Celebrating and Protecting the Ocean all Year

Thu, 06/08/2017 - 10:28

Ocean sunset. Image credit: NOAA

 

At NOAA’s National Ocean Service, which includes the Office of Response and Restoration, we are honoring all things ocean the entire month of June. As we commemorate this interconnected body of water that sustains our planet, consider how each of us can be involved in both celebrating and protecting the ocean.

Act to Protect the Ocean

Feeling inspired by our amazing ocean? Here are actions you can take to protect it from its many threats:

You can learn even more about protecting the ocean from our Marine Debris Program. To learn more about the ocean and coastal areas consider visiting a National Marine Sanctuary or National Estuarine Research Reserve  and getting a hands-on education.

The more we all know and care about the ocean, the more we will do to take care of it. Together, we can protect the ocean.