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Solving the Case of the Mystery Sheen

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Mon, 08/21/2017 - 08:06

Can you see the sheen in the distance? That lighter blue just below the horizon caught the attention of the U.S. Coast Guard helicopter crew that led to the discovery of a natural oil seep off the coast of San Diego, California. The sheen’s narrowing on the left with broader “feathering” on the right suggested a submerged source. Image credit: U.S. Coast Guard.

By Jordan Stout, NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator

In early March 2017, a U.S. Coast Guard helicopter was returning to its home base when the aircrew spotted a silvery sheen in the water about 35 miles west of San Diego, California.

I imagine the conversation among the crew went something like this:

Hey, that looks like it might be oil…

Is that from yesterday’s spill?  No sir, too far away…

Did any vessels sink out here recently?  Nothing’s been reported…

Do you see any debris in the water?  No sir, but I think I see bubbles coming to the surface within the sheen…

We’re pretty far offshore.  How deep is the water here?  Chart says about 300 fathoms (roughly 1,800 feet)…

Any other petroleum sources out here?  Not that I’m aware of.  Let’s call it in…

Reporting that finding of a mysterious sheen of oil on the ocean’s surface triggers a forensic process that typically requires the highly skilled staff of multiple federal agencies. In this instance, it included U.S. Coast Guard, several NOAA offices, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

Most Coast Guard aircrew members have overflown an oil spill at some point in their careers and many have seen our overflight job aid or taken the NOAA on-line training to help them identify and describe oil on the water.

In this case, the aircrew took photos and reported their observations to their command center. The crew’s initial report stated the sheen spanned approximately 400 yards by 10 yards, was patchy, thin, and unrecoverable.

Initial theories about the mystery sheen included:

  • A passing ship that spilled oil (by accident or intentionally)
  • A recent vessel casualty
  • An old shipwreck
  • An offshore disposal site, or
  • A natural oil seep

Theories in place, the next step was going through the list and systematically eliminating what could be causing the sheen.

Sheen shape, size, and area traffic

The Coast Guard is well known for conducting search and rescue operations when vessels are in distress and lives are at stake. It’s also responsible for ensuring safe and lawful maritime commerce. A check showed no large vessels had been in the area recently nor had any vessels (small or large) been reported missing.

The aircrew’s report of an oil “sheen” indicated to folks on shore that they had seen a very thin layer of oil (<50 microns) on the water’s surface.  That’s pretty darned thin, if you consider that a normal sheet of paper is about 100 microns thick.  Such thin layers don’t normally persist very long in the environment, so it wasn’t expected to stick around very long.

If the sheen had been spread out and patchy, it might be consistent with a spill from a passing ship or an earlier spill that had moved some distance over time.  Instead, the photos showed the sheen as a long linear feature, very narrow at one end and spread out and dissipating at the other (downstream) end.

During subsequent overflights for the next few days, the Coast Guard continued to see a similar sheen in the same location.  Because the original sheen would have dissipated in a matter of hours, these repeated sheen observations seemed to confirm an on-going, fixed source. But, what was it?

Both sunken vessels and natural seeps can release gases, so observing bubbles was interesting but not conclusive.  It could have been a sunken vessel, but in most cases, a sunken vessel will only release bubbles over a short period of time until the pockets of trapped air are all gone.  However, natural seeps can release gas bubbles continuously or sporadically for years.

Satellites, sunken ships and chemical analysis

Satellites – We checked with NOAA’s environmental satellite office, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, to see if any of their environmental satellite data/imagery had picked anything odd at that location recently or in any of their archived imagery.  They looked but they didn’t see anything obvious, but that’s not conclusive either.  Even the best satellite sensors for detecting oil on water have limitations.  There may very well have been a sheen out there, but it could not be distinguished with satellite data either because the winds were not optimal, the sheen was too small, or there was too much background “noise” in the data.

Maritime history – NOAA plays an important national role in identifying and protecting our nation’s maritime history.  As part of that stewardship role, NOAA and the Coast Guard partnered to evaluate which of the 1,000’s of shipwrecks in United States water might pose a substantial pollution threat.  This effort, called Remediation of Underwater Legacy Environmental Threats, or RULET, resulted in a series of reports in 2013.  No potentially polluting shipwrecks were identified off San Diego through the RULET program.

Charting – Another data source, the Resources and Under Sea Threats, called RUST, which includes shipwrecks and other potential pollution sources, only identified an ammunition dumpsite offshore of San Diego.  That site appears on the NOAA nautical charts, but is over 13 miles away.

Chemistry – A Coast Guard ship was sent out to obtain some sheen samples.  Chemical analysis from their Marine Safety Lab revealed the sheen contained petroleum oil with characteristics most resembling those of moderately weathered crude oil.  A vessel leaking fuel would not show a crude oil signature, but a natural seep would.

The helicopter crew guided a boat-based sampling team to the area. Samples were sent to the Coast Guard’s Marine Safety Lab for analysis. Image credit: U.S. Coast Guard.

And the Mystery Sheen is: a natural seep?

 The seas off Southern California are known to have hundreds of sub-sea natural oil seeps. Most of them are found off Santa Barbara, and quite a few off Los Angeles, according to Thomas Lorenson, research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey at the Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center.

“Recent seafloor mapping south of Santa Catalina Island shows subsea features like mounds that are often associated with oil or natural gas seepage, so it is not too surprising to discover another seep,” said Lorenson. “Luckily a person can pay a visit to a famous oil seep found on land at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles and imagine what they may look like underwater.”

So though we’ve not (yet) gotten visual confirmation of seep with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, a natural seep on the sea floor remains the best explanation for this mystery.

 

Jordan Stout is the Scientific Support Coordinator in California, providing scientific input to the U.S. Coast Guard and Environmental Protection Agency for spills of oil and hazardous material.

 


Keeping the Oil Pollution Act Updated

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Thu, 08/17/2017 - 08:10

The pipeline release allowed an estimated 21,000 gallons of crude oil to reach the Pacific Ocean, shown here where the oil entered Refugio State Beach. (NOAA)

On August 18, 1990, President H.W. Bush signed the Oil Pollution Act.  The act gave NOAA and other agencies improved authorities for spill prevention, response, and restoration in the nation’s navigable waters and shorelines.

The act ensured those responsible for an oil spill must cleanup and restore the environment, and compensate the public for its lost uses—like beach and recreational fishery closures—from the time of the incident until those natural resources fully recover.

Now 27 years old, some parts of the law are dated. But, the Act signed by President Bush was not the final word on oil pollution.

Like many other laws, it has been subject to various amendments over time to address emerging issues or to strengthen or clarify the original law.

Often, the amendments advance through related legislation that move through Congress and reach the president. For example, a number of Oil Pollution Act amendments were added to U.S. Coast Guard authorization bills.

For instance, the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 added a number of provisions including:

  • Requirements for oil transfers from vessels
  • Improvements to reduce human error and near miss incidents
  • Prevention of small oil spills
  • Improved coordination with tribal governments
  • Changed the definitions of certain ports
  • Altered uses of Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund by authorizing appropriations for NOAA and changed liability provisions for single hull vessels.

Sometimes these amendments can be quite technical but can also have significant impacts on how we work.  For example, the Coast Guard authorization act included this language that affected waterways near Seattle:

Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commandant shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to modify the definition of the term ‘‘higher volume port area’’ in section 155.1020 of the Coast Guard regulations (33 C.F.R. 155.1020) by striking ‘‘Port Angeles, WA’’ in paragraph (13) of that section and inserting ‘‘Cape Flattery, WA’’.

There are about 15 higher volume port areas in the United States and these areas are subject to the most stringent response planning requirements.

As you might expect, these include the biggest oil ports in the nation, including New York, Houston, New Orleans, and Prince William Sound, Alaska.  In these high volume port areas, large amounts of response equipment has to be on standby, ready to deploy on very short notice.

However, Cape Flattery is on the northwest tip of Washington State. The fishing port of Neah Bay is nearby, but it is hardly a major oil port.

Hmm, so what did that accomplish? That simple definitional change meant that all tankers approaching the Strait of Juan de Fuca and oil terminals closer to Seattle had to have approved plans and meet the most stringent response times following a spill anywhere along our inland waters.  This required adding response vessels and equipment out near the entrance of the Strait and increasing the ability to rapidly respond to any spills.

There are already several bills in Congress this year that would further amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. In between spills and restoration work, we keep an eye on their progress through the legislative process.

You can read these articles for more information on the Oil Pollution Act of 1990:


Polar Bears and Response Drills in Alaska

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Tue, 08/15/2017 - 08:10

NOAA scientists scout for polar bears prior to disembarking for fieldwork at Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Image credit: NOAA.

How do you handle a polar bear covered in oil?  That was just one aspect of the annual Mutual Aid Deployment exercise last month on Alaska’s North Slope oil field.

Staff members from our Emergency Response Division and the Assessment and Restoration Division as well as other NOAA offices participated in the three-day exercise. Each year government agencies, oil companies, and oil spill removal organizations in the region work together to respond to a simulated oil spill in Alaska.

The scenario for this year’s drill was the simulation of an oil pipeline leak in the Beaufort Sea and the rescue of an oiled polar bear. In the exercise, the pipeline that was leaking belonged to Hilcorp, Alaska LLC. It was the first year the oil company hosted the event.

In addition to our office, participants included:

The exercise included field equipment deployment, an Incident Command Center, and remote operations in Anchorage.

Emergency Response Division staff participated in the Incident Management Team at the command center established at Hilcorp’s Endicott Facility on the Beaufort Sea north of Prudhoe Bay.

Staff from the Assessment and Restoration Division led the Natural Resource Damage Assessment component of the drill, that included a tabletop exercise with representatives from the state and federal agencies, and staff from Hilcorp. One Damage Assessment liaison was at the Endicott facility and the rest of the team participated remotely from Anchorage. The drill provided an opportunity to practice how a natural resource damage assessment would work with response early in a spill situation.

NOAA provides scientific support to the Coast Guard during oil and chemical spills, and the tools we’ve developed are an extension of that support. During the exercise, our GNOME trajectory-forecasting tool kept participants updated on where the spilled oil could go.

Arctic ERMA, our online Environmental Response Management Application, was continuously being updated with information on where the oil was as well as the location all the responders and their equipment. Environmental Sensitivity Index maps, which identify vulnerable wildlife and habitat potentially at risk from the spill, were displayed in ERMA.

Information visualized on Arctic ERMA during the Mutual Aid Deployment exercise on Alaska’s North Slope oil field. Image credit: NOAA.

So how do you handle an oiled polar bear?

Very carefully and with a close eye on a timer.

Part of the drill was to see if an oil-injured polar bear could be tranquilized, pulled from the water, cleaned and caged before waking up.

Standing in for a real polar bear was an industrial-sized drum, filled with sand, covered with white cloth, and sporting a molded-foam head. The idea was to put the bear in the ocean and have emergency responders rescue the bear.

The rescue went well although some miscommunication early in the day added an unexpected element of realism—the team setting the fake bear in the lagoon did not anchor it, and due to heavy seas and winds on drill day, the bear drifted out into open water. However, the polar bear response team performed expertly and the fake bear was successfully located and rescued within the time allotted.

The fake polar bear used for the Mutual Aid Deployment exercise on Alaska’s North Slope oil field. Image credit: NOAA.

You can read more about other simulated oil (and oranges and rubber ducks) spills in these articles:

 

Zachary Winters-Staszak, Catherine Berg, and Sarah Allan of the Office of Response and Restoration contributed to this article.

 


Mystery Sheen, S of Block Island, RI

Incident News

- Mon, 08/14/2017 - 17:00
On August 15, 2017, the USCG Sector Long Island Sound contacted the NOAA SSC regarding a mystery sheen reported by USCG Air Station Cape Cod south of Block Island, RI. CG is requesting hindcast information. The sheen does not align with any charted wrecks.

Weston Mill Dam Removal Project in Full Swing

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Mon, 08/14/2017 - 08:05

Removal of the Weston Mill Dam is an important step in long-term efforts to restore habitat in the Raritan River watershed. Image credit: Stony Brook-Millstone Watershed Association.

Fish will once again be able to swim unencumbered in New Jersey’s Millstone River as removal of the Weston Mill Dam begins.

The project is part of the settlement negotiated to compensate for potential injuries to fish and other in-river trust resources from long-term hazardous substance releases related to the American Cyanamid Superfund Site nearby Bridgewater, New Jersey. The site was used for manufacturing of chemicals, dyes, and pharmaceuticals and for coal tar distillation from the early 1900s until 1999.

“Removal of the Weston Mill Dam is an important step in long-term efforts to restore habitat in the Raritan River watershed,” said David Westerholm, Director of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration. “Cooperative resolution of natural resource damage liability benefits everyone – the public, industry, and the ecosystem. These collaborative efforts lower damage assessment costs, reduce risk of litigation, and – most importantly – shorten the time between injury and restoration of public resources.”

Removal of the dam will return the flow of the river closer to its natural state restoring passage for migratory fish, and improving water quality and habitat without negative impacts to endangered species or cultural, sociological, or archaeological resources.

The project will open about 4.5 miles of the Millstone River to migratory species – including American shad and river herring  -that spend much of their lives in the ocean and estuaries but need to return to freshwater rivers and streams to spawn, according to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. American eel, which spawn in the ocean but spend much of their lives in rivers and streams, will also benefit.

The dam removal will also benefit people by increasing safety and improving recreational and scenic enjoyment of the waterway A free-flowing river allows safer kayaking, canoeing, and fishing.

Here in the United States, millions of dams and other barriers block fish from reaching upstream spawning and rearing habitat. Although dams often provide benefits, such as hydroelectric power and irrigation many, including the Weston Mill Dam, are now obsolete and present a hazard.

Fish ladders, bypass channels, and rock ramps are forms of Technical Fish Passage that may be considered when dam removal is not an option, according to NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Restoration Center.

NOAA and our co-trustees – the U.S. Department of Interior and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – secured removal of the Weston Mill Dam through cooperative resolution of natural resource damages and ongoing work with our local partners including the Stony Brook-Millstone Watershed Association.

You can read more about the Raritan River in this article:

Reyhan Mehran of the Office of Response and Restoration and Carl Alderson of the NOAA Fisheries Restoration Center contributed to this article.


MPSR support for Anomaly detected ~94NM SE TX, East Breaks Area

Incident News

- Sun, 08/13/2017 - 17:00
On August 14, 2017, the USCG Sector Houston Galveston contacted the NOAA RRO regarding an Marine Pollution Surveillance Report (MPSR) provided by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NOAA/NESDIS) . Observations from AUG 13, 2017 2017 showed an anomaly (potential spill) approximately 94 nautical miles (NM) Se off the coast of Texas.

FV Akutan, Unalaska, AK

Incident News

- Sat, 08/12/2017 - 17:00
On August 5, 2017, the FV Akutan left Dillingham, AK, reportedly on its way to Seattle. The vessel began having mechanical issues and headed to Dutch Harbor. They made it in to Captains Bay on August 7th by their own power, but because of the vessel issues, the Coast Guard escorted them in. The vessel currently remains at anchor and is disabled in Captains Bay approximately 2 miles southeast of Westward Seafoods. USCG has requested a ESA Section 7 consultation.

National Aquarium Helping Reduce Plastic Pollution

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Fri, 08/11/2017 - 07:52

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

This year the National Aquarium eliminated all single-use plastic foodware in its building. Image credit: National Aquarium.

By Maggie OstdahlNational Aquarium 

Experts estimate there are more than 5 trillion pieces of plastic floating in our ocean, with millions of tons entering the ocean from land each year. It’s estimated that Americans use (and throw away) about 500 million plastic straws each day, and 100 billion plastic bags each year. Disposable plastic items easily wash or blow into the ocean, where they can have devastating effects on marine animals and ecosystems.

Plastic pollution also affects human health—humans are ingesting the plastic that has found its way into our food web, and the production of plastic releases toxins into our atmosphere that have negative impacts on our health.

We also have a financial interest in reducing plastic pollution, since the cost of waste management and litter cleanup largely comes from our tax dollars. Recycling helps, but reducing the use of plastic is a critical first step in keeping it out of the ocean.

The National Aquarium is proud to contribute to the global reduction of plastics, not only through advocacy and education, but also through our own operations. This year, we eliminated all single-use plastic foodware in our building.

This change involved many of our partners, including Sodexo, the Classic Catering People and Pepsi, and a shift in the products we offer in our on-site cafes. For example, disposable plastic lids, straws, stirrers and utensils have been replaced with compostable options. Juices and soft drinks are available, but no longer sold in single-use bottles, eliminating the average 85,000 single-use soda and juice bottles previously sold within our building each year.

Prior to this year, we also removed plastic bags in our gift shops, eliminated single-use water bottles and installed water bottle filling stations throughout our building. As a result of these changes, we estimate that at least 300,000 water and soft drink bottles have been removed from the waste stream each year.

Our most recent effort to eliminate single-use plastics is also part of our leadership role in the Aquarium Conservation Partnership, or ACP, a first-of-its-kind collaboration of 19 U.S. aquariums that have joined together to take collective action to address plastic pollution.

Alongside Monterey Bay Aquarium and Shedd Aquarium, we’ve led the charge to produce In Our Hands, the ACP’s first consumer campaign. In Our Hands seeks to bring awareness and action to plastic pollution, and empower the participating aquariums’ 20 million visitors—and millions more in their communities—to shift away from single-use plastics and adopt innovative alternatives.

The participating aquariums have also pledged to significantly reduce or eliminate plastic beverage bottles by December 2020 and showcase innovative alternatives to single-use plastics in their facilities.

Whether through consumer education or operations within our own walls, the National Aquarium is proud to work with other organizations and our on-site partners to lead the fight against plastic pollution. Reducing plastic at or near the source of production is crucial to keeping it from becoming marine debris that harms wildlife and people, and educating consumers about these harmful effects is key to inspiring change.

 

Maggie Ostdahl is the Conservation Operations Manager at the National Aquarium who never leaves the house without her reusables. The National Aquarium is a nonprofit organization with a mission to inspire conservation of the world’s aquatic treasures. Consistently ranked as one of the nation’s two top aquariums, we have hosted over 51 million guests and educate more than 100,000 students each year. We prioritize our work to focus on pressing issues in urban conservation, climate change and coastal resiliency, and ocean and human health.


Oils Spills and Animal Rescue in Alaska and Beyond

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Thu, 08/10/2017 - 07:02

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

 

This harbor seal was discovered hurt and alone on a beach South Naknek, Alaska. She was admitted to Alaska SeaLife Center’s Wildlife Response Program and after gaining her health, was release back into the wild. You can read more of her story here. All activities involving animals are authorized under ASLC’s NOAA Stranding Agreement. Image credit: Alaska SeaLife Center.

By Carrie Goertz, Alaska SeaLife Center

I love working with animals but being a bit of an organizational geek, I also enjoy the logistical side of preparation. The right tool for the job, a place for everything, and everything in its place gives me great satisfaction.

Here in Seward, Alaska, we have built a well-equipped facility with depth in space, resources, and personnel. But chances are oil spills will occur somewhere other than our home base. We have partnered with oil spill response organizations to provide support in other key areas with a large industrial and civic presence. These and other fixed facilities have the advantage of being close to population centers, providing shelter, and meeting the needs of stranded animals and our staff.

However, Alaska is a bit on the large side and has thousands of miles of remote coastlines dotted with small communities. As trans-Arctic shipping increases, so does the risk of accidents potentially affecting these shores, and we cannot count on spills happening where our equipment is conveniently available. In fact, we need to be prepared to be completely self-sufficient and independent of even the smallest communities so as not to over-tax their resources with our activities.

So how do we take our rehab center on the road? Or rather, how do we take it down the beach, since most of Alaska’s shore is not accessible by road? We need a deployable set of equipment to treat impacted animals that will also meet the needs of the staff required to care for them.

Something like a MASH unit, a mobile army surgical hospital, or perhaps a ‘Mobile Animal Stranding Hospital!’ The team at Alaska Sea Life Center had already come up with an easily shipped seal pool and a list of equipment needed to support the oiled, stranded animals at fixed facilities as part of our partnerships with oil spill response organizations.

Now we needed to focus on those additional items needed if we were required to provide our own electricity, water, shelter, and staff needs, all of which needed to be compact and deployable.

Ultimately, we settled on a tiny-house-meets-Transformers approach in which we fill specially designed shipping container units with the necessary supplies and equipment, ready to be deployed where needed. Once on site, they transform into a veterinary clinic, food storage and kitchen, animal housing—including a pool, totes, crates, and dry area—and staff area.

Tiny-house-meets-Transformers in the Alaska SeaLife Center’s design for a mobile animal hospital. Each unit is filled with the necessary supplies and equipment to help wildlife, ready to be deployed where needed. Image credit: Alaska SeaLife Center.

But how will we staff our responses? Initially, we plan to draw from our own staff, as many are both Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response certified and experienced with caring for marine mammals and are based right here in Alaska. We have also partnered with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to train additional personnel experienced with the unique challenges of caring for marine mammals. Their home institutions have agreed to allow trained staff to deploy in support of events, but their staff are also trained to assist with events in their local area.

In combination, these efforts keep us ready, keep Alaska ready, and keep zoos and aquaria across the country ready.

To read more about the Association of Zoos and Aquariums program to train members for wildlife spill response:

Zoos and Aquariums Training for Oil Spill Emergency Response

Read more stories in our series on the effects of pollutants on wildlife:

 

Carrie Goertz is the staff veterinarian at the Alaska SeaLife Center overseeing the program of veterinary care for collection, research, and stranded animals. Special interests include helping the center and other zoological facilities being prepared to respond to disasters as well as how information about animals in zoological facilities and free ranging wildlife can help provide the best care for both groups.

Opened in 1998, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a private, non-profit research institution and public aquarium. ASLC generates and shares scientific knowledge to promote understanding and stewardship of Alaska’s marine ecosystems, and is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. To learn more, visit www.alaskasealife.org.

 


FV Stoic, Unakwik Inlet, Northern Prince William Sound, Alaska

Incident News

- Wed, 08/09/2017 - 17:00
On August 10, 2017, the 51-foot F/V Stoic struck a rocky outcrop and capsized off of Siwash Bay in Unakwik Inlet, AK. Four people were on board, but they made it to the skiff, and were picked up by a good Samaritan vessel. The potential diesel fuel is 1,000 gallons, but the actual amount onboard is unknown.

M/V Calumet Aground St. Marys River, MI, Ferry Dock, Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783, USA

Incident News

- Wed, 08/09/2017 - 17:00
At 2340 on August 9th, 2017, M/V Calumet a 629-foot cargo ship ran aground on the north side of Sugar Island in the St. Marys River. No reported damage, injuries, or pollution. USCG Sector Sault Ste. Marie contacted the NOAA SSC to request trajectory and resources at risk for the potential release of 105,000 gals of #2 Diesel fuel.

How Marine Debris is Impacting Marine Animals

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Wed, 08/09/2017 - 07:42

and What You Can do About it……

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration looks at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

Left: Animals can become entangled in marine debris, particularly in items such as derelict fishing lines and nets. Image credit: NOAA. Right: Sea turtles entangled in debris run the risk of drowning if they are prevented from reaching the surface to breathe. Image credit: NOAA.

Marine debris is one of the most widespread pollution problems facing our ocean and waterways today. This issue of solid, man-made materials in the ocean or Great Lakes is a global one that leaves no part of the world untouched by debris and its impacts. These negative effects impact people on a daily basis, from economic losses to potential health hazards, but can impact marine animals most severely. Animals are impacted by marine debris in a variety of ways, including:

Ingestion. Marine debris can be ingested by animals that either mistake it for food or accidentally consume it along with their meal. This can create a lot of problems, ranging from mild discomfort to a dangerous blockage. Debris can fill up stomachs, causing an animal to feel full while depriving it of the nutritious meal it needs. In these cases, animals may starve with a full stomach.

Left: The contents of this bird’s stomach shows marine debris can block up an animal’s system. When plastic debris is ingested, it can make the animal feel full and robs them of getting the nutrients they need. Image Credit: NOAA. Right: This sea turtle was found after ingesting balloon debris, likely mistaking it for food. Image Credit: Blair Witherington, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

Entanglement. Animals may become tangled up in marine debris and unable to free themselves. This can affect the animal in a variety of ways, ranging from mild discomfort to seriously impacting the animal’s ability to survive. Entangled animals may get abrasions from the debris, resulting in a dangerous infection. If movement is restricted, animals may not be able to feed and air-breathing fauna may drown if entangled underwater.

Habitat damage. Marine debris can also harm animals indirectly by impacting their habitat. Large or heavy debris may damage or smother sensitive habitats, such as coral reefs and sea grass.

Left: Debris can damage or smother sensitive habitats like coral reefs. Image credit: NOAA. Right: After six months of a derelict spiny lobster trap sitting on top of seagrass, the impact to this habitat can be readily observed. Image credit: NOAA.

Non-native species. Non-native species may hitch a ride on marine debris from one region to another. This might sound like a convenient way to travel, but if these introduced species become invasive, they can wreak havoc on an ecosystem by depleting food sources or destroying habitat.

Thankfully, there is hope! Although debris is a big problem that has many negative impacts, it is also a completely preventable problem that we have the power to address. The NOAA Marine Debris Program has many efforts underway to prevent and remove marine debris in order to reduce these harmful effects, coordinating with partners on local solutions to this global issue. Many other organizations are stepping up to do their part to address debris, from reducing their distribution of unnecessary single-use plastics to involving the community in caring for their local area.

You can get involved, too! Evaluate your habits and change those that may contribute to marine debris. Follow the “3Rs” and reduce, reuse, and recycle. An additional “R” to keep in mind is to refuse items you don’t need, like a plastic straw in your water glass. Spread the word to your family and friends so they can participate, too. If you’d like to get more involved, join a cleanup in your area (subscribe to our e-newsletter for a list of cleanups each month) or start one yourself and use the Marine Debris Tracker app to record your finds. Working together, we can make a big difference in the fight against marine debris.

To learn more about the NOAA Marine Debris Program’s efforts to remove and prevent marine debris, head to marinedebris.noaa.gov.

Read more stories in our series on the effects of pollutants on wildlife:

 


FV Confidence, Sitka, AK

Incident News

- Tue, 08/08/2017 - 17:00
On August 6, 2017, the commercial fishing vessel CONFIDENCE , a 48.8' seine vessel, grounded in Neva Strait near Sitka, Alaska. Vessel fuel capacity is 1500 gallons and the owner estimates there is approximately 600 gallons of diesel fuel aboard. Additionally, vessel has an estimated 70K pounds of catch aboard. The NOAA SSC has been working with DOI and Trust resource agencies on a fish disposal plan

A Legacy of Industry and Toxins in Northern New Jersey: Striped Bass and Blue Crab

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Tue, 08/08/2017 - 08:41

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

Newark Bay and its tributaries are among the places in northern New Jersey where the federal government has initiated cleanup and restoration activities to address contamination related to industrial releases of hazardous waste. Image credit: NOAA.

Northern New Jersey’s industrial history continues to effect two popular recreational fisheries, striped bass and blue crab. Examining how toxic waste from the past continues to impact people and wildlife today shows the importance of continuing to cleanup and restore polluted habitats.

Striped Bass

Striped bass is prized both for its taste and for the challenge in catching the fish. Its popularity in sports fishing circles rivals that of salmon. Yet because of pollutants found in the fish, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection cautions people to limit their consumption of striped bass caught in the state and advises high-risk individuals—including children—not to eat them at all. For striped bass caught in some of the northern parts of the State, like in the Newark Bay Complex – the bay and its tidal tributaries – the department has even stricter recommendations for limiting consumption.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the northeastern part of our country was heavily industrialized. Plastics, dyes, pharmaceuticals, and paint are just a few examples of important manufacturing that took place in these areas and that released, as by-products, toxic substances such as mercury, chromium, arsenic, lead, and PCBs into local bodies of water.

Striped bass – a popular New Jersey sport fish and top-level predator – can accumulate high concentrations of unsafe contaminants. Image credit: NOAA.

Because striped bass move inland to spawn, they are accessible to recreational fishers but exposed to the contaminated sediments that remain in some of these areas from their industrial history. Striped bass is a long-lived predatory fish that feeds on smaller fish, so bioaccumulative contaminants (like mercury and PCBs) can build up in its tissues. These contaminants are harmful to people who consume the fish and are unhealthy for the fish themselves.

Blue Crab

Found in brackish estuarine areas in the same region are blue crabs. Blue crabs are among the most sought-after shellfish—both commercially and recreationally—and are found from Nova Scotia to Uruguay. Callinectes sapidus, the Latin name for blue crab, means “savory beautiful swimmer.” At about 4 inches long and 9 inches wide, they are prized for their taste.

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection warns that:

“…blue claw crabs from the Newark Bay region are contaminated with harmful levels of dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Eating blue claw crabs from this region may cause cancer and harm brain development in unborn and young children. Fish consumption advisories in this region for blue claw crabs are DO NOT CATCH! AND DO NOT EAT!”

Because blue crab live on the bottom of waterways where contaminants tend to accumulate, they can be unsafe to eat in formerly industrial areas. It’s always important to be aware of any consumption advisories in place for bodies of water before eating what you catch. Image credit: NOAA.

Blue crab serve an important role in the ecosystem as benthic (bottom) feeders and important prey for other fish. But because they live at the bottom of waterways, those found in formerly industrial areas, can be in direct contact with contaminated sediments that are the legacy of the historical discharge of industrial wastes and these contaminants can accumulate in their bodies. In addition to making the blue crab unsuitable for human consumption, those toxins adversely affect the blue crabs themselves, negatively impacting their survival, growth, or reproduction.

Restoring Clean and Healthy Habitats

The good news is that the process of cleanup and restoration is in progress at many of these contaminated waste sites in northern New Jersey including Newark Bay as well as throughout the country.

The industries that contributed to the pollution were developing products we depend on and were bolstering the nation’s economy but it is also essential to rehabilitate contaminated waterways and restore the habitats on which these species depend.

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly known as Superfund, guides the reduction of exposure of wildlife like striped bass and blue crab to contaminated areas and enables the Trustees, including NOAA,  to recover the costs of restoring or replacing the equivalent of the resources that the public has lost because of the contamination.

The Trustees work to ensure that the cleanups minimize ongoing injury to wildlife and the people who use those resources. Trustees also restore clean healthy habitats for fish and shellfish to compensate for the lost use of areas that were contaminated; restored areas are designed to improve fish and shellfish populations and enhance recreational access.

For more information on our restoration work in New Jersey, read the following articles:

Read more stories in our series on the effects of pollutants on wildlife:

How to Locate Wildlife Threatened During Oil Spills

 

Reyhan Meharn, NOAA Regional Resource Coordinator with the Assessment and Restoration Division, and Vicki Loe, Communications Coordinator for NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, contributed to this article.


Anomaly, NRC# 1186656, Mississippi Canyon 20, Offshore Louisiana

Incident News

- Mon, 08/07/2017 - 17:00
On August 8, 2017, Sector New Orleans contacted the NOAA SSC regarding a satellite "anomaly" or potential spill detected in Mississippi Canyon 20 by the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Oceanmap program. Reports provided.

How to Locate Wildlife Threatened During Oil Spills

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Mon, 08/07/2017 - 08:00

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the impacts of pollutants on wildlife and endangered species. We’ll explore tools we’ve developed to map sensitive species and habitats, how marine debris endangers marine life, how restoring toxic waste sites improves the health of wildlife, and the creation of a mobile wildlife hospital.

Harbor seals are one of the many species cataloged in our Environmental Sensitivity Index. Image credit: Marge Brigadier, NOAA Monterey Bay Aquarium.

Scenario: You’re a state natural resource manager for a coastal salt marsh and just got a call that a tanker spilled thousands of gallons of crude oil that is now heading for your shores. You have maybe two hours before the oil starts washing up on your coast.

What do you do?

How do you determine what animals may be in jeopardy?

How do you prepare a response plan to protect those species?

Anticipating the information state and federal staff need when responding to an oil spill or other environmental hazard is what we do. In addition to providing scientific support, we’ve developed guides and databases for resource and response managers to use in those early, sometimes chaotic, hours of an incident.

One of the tools we’ve developed is our Environmental Sensitivity Index maps. The maps and data show where species are found, along with information about monthly seasonality, breeding and life stages occurring, concentrations, and qualifiers that indicate why a species occurrence may have increased vulnerabilities.

In responding to hazardous materials released into the natural environment, it’s important for responders to know that some animal species are especially vulnerable to spills and cleanup activities. Animals and their habitats tend to be most at risk from oil spills when:

  • There are many individuals concentrated in a small area, such as a seal haulout area or a bay where waterfowl concentrate during migration.
  • Early life stages such as seabird rookeries, spawning beds used by anadromous fish, or turtle nesting beaches are present.
  • Oil affects areas important to specific life stages such as foraging or over-wintering sites, or migration routes

Our Environmental Sensitivity Index maps categorize and display environmental hazard sensitive animals and their habitats, and habitats that are themselves sensitive to spilled oil, such as coral reefs. This map shows part of the Maine coast. Image credit: NOAA.

What information is in an Environmental Sensitivity Index?

It’s important for emergency responders to know as much as possible about what species may be adversely affected by a hazardous spill. Our Environmental Sensitivity Index, or ESI, maps include critical information on:

  • Rare, threatened, endangered, and species of special concern
  • Commercial and recreational wildlife
  • Areas of high species concentration
  • Areas where sensitive life-stages or activities occur

In addition to information on wildlife resources along the nation’s coastlines, the indexes provide detailed information on shorelines and on how people use the natural resources present.

How we gather biological information

The Environmental Sensitivity Index biology information is a compilation of existing data and regional knowledge. A list of all threatened or endangered species in the area is amended with other regional species that are of local concern, or are particularly vulnerable to oil.

Once an initial species list is created, the search for existing species distribution and seasonal information begins. This may come from state or local government, academics, non-profit organizations, or non-affiliated experts. A typical ESI atlas will have upwards of 100 contributing expert sources and documents.

The ESI challenge is how best to compile and integrate this diverse data to create a product useful to responders who need to quickly assess an area of potential oil impact. As data is processed, the contributing experts are asked to review the species distribution and attributes to assure the data is presented accurately and as intended.

Because there are often multiple sources for a single species, this is particularly important in order to assure the experts are comfortable with how their information will be presented. This is a collaborative process during which additional species may be identified and added to the species list, and additional resource experts are identified. Reviews continue through the finalization of the ESI data and tables.

How to access the data

The Environmental Sensitivity Index data is designed to work within a geographic information system. The data can also be accessed publicly through a variety of free tools including our ESI toolkit and many of our Environmental Response Management Application, or ERMA®.

Using the query tool in ERMA you can isolate a particular area by making a polygon and then choose which ESI data to display. Image credit: NOAA.

Making decisions during an environmental crisis sometimes requires difficult trade offs. Having this valuable information ready beforehand helps spill planners and responders prioritize areas to protect from oil and identify appropriate cleanup strategies.

Jill Petersen, ESI program manager, contributed to this article.


Propyl acetate release, Pier G, Port of Long Beach, CA 90802, USA

Incident News

- Sat, 08/05/2017 - 17:00
On August 6, 2017, the USCG Sector Los Angeles/Long Beach contacted the NOAA SSC to request hazard information for a release of propyl acetate (UN/NA 1276) on the deck of the container ship MV Harbour Bridge. The ship is currently moored along southern face of Pier G. A puncture in a 20-foot ISO tank resulted in product was spilled onto the deck and some product may have entered the water. Eleven crewmembers were reportedly having difficulty breathing and one fire fighter has been sent to the hospital.

Mystery Sheen , Viosca Knoll 983, Offshore Louisiana

Incident News

- Fri, 08/04/2017 - 17:00
On August 5, 2017, USCG Sector New Orleans IMD contacted the NOAA SSC for evaluation of the potential source of a mystery sheen reported in Viosca Knoll Block 983.

FV All In, Knight Island, AK

Incident News

- Thu, 08/03/2017 - 17:00
On 4-Aug-2017, the F/V All In capsized off the south end of Knight Island. Vessel is not drifting; it is in shallow waters, and the mast is reportedly touching the bottom. There is approximately 400 gallons of diesel on board (max potential of 1500 gal of diesel), but there is no release reported at this time. The USCG MSO Valdez is requesting a fates analysis, trajectory, and resources at risk report.

Incident Responses for July 2017

From NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

- Thu, 08/03/2017 - 09:11

The U.S. Coast Guard requested a vessel drift analysis and trajectory for the 400 gallons of diesel fuel associated with the FV Grayling that capsized off the coast of Kodiak, Alaska July 21, 2017. The Alaska ShoreZone photo shows the gravel shoreline most immediately adjacent to the sinking location of the Grayling. Image credit: NOAA.

Aug. 3, 2017 – Every month our Emergency Response Division provides scientific expertise and services to the U.S. Coast Guard.

Our services include everything from running oil spill trajectories to possible effects on wildlife and fisheries, and estimates on how long the oil may stay in the environment.

In July, our scientific support coordinators responded to requests for a vessel drift analysis and trajectory, an analysis of currents and winds to help identify the potential source of an oil sheen, and list of sensitive species and resources that could be effected from warehouse fire near a river.

Our Incident News website has information on oil spills and other incidents where we provided scientific support.

Here are some of this month’s responses:

Drifting Fisheries Buoy Trajectory

FV Grayling, Kodiak, AK

Tanker Truck Spill Florida Keys MM 70

Mississippi Canyon 736 Platform Discharge

North River Street Fire – Portland, OR

Wreck 1487

UTV Eric Haney

FV Donna

FV Ketok

FV Bunchie


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